Permalink Ukraine dam: When do attacks on civilian installations amount to war crimes?

Stephanie Van Den Berg and Anthony Deutsch | The Geneva Conventions and its protocols explicitly ban war-time attacks on “installations containing dangerous forces” such as dams due to the risk posed to civilians, a prohibition likely to come into focus after the destruction of a huge Ukrainian dam.  Ukraine accused Russia on Tuesday of blowing up the Nova Kakhovka dam on the Dnipro River that separates Russian and Ukrainian forces in southern Ukraine, inundating a populated region of the war zone and forcing villagers to flee. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said Ukraine sabotaged the dam to distract attention from its faltering counteroffensive. Attack on a dam: What kind of crime could it be? — The 1949 Geneva Convention’s subsequent protocols specifically cover attacks on “installations containing dangerous forces,” such as hydroelectric dams. Such installations should not be attacked even if they are legitimate military objectives, “if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population,” the protocols, dating from 1977 say. There is no mention of dams in the 1998 founding statute of the International Criminal Court. But the statute does criminalize “intentionally launching an attack in the knowledge that such attack will cause incidental loss of life or injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects or widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment which would be clearly excessive in relation to the concrete and direct overall military advantage anticipated.” What does international law say? — The Geneva Conventions and additional protocols shaped by international courts say that parties involved in a military conflict must distinguish between “civilian objects and military objectives,” and that attacks on civilian objects are forbidden. This prohibition is also codified in the Rome Statute of the ICC, which opened an investigation into possible war crimes in Ukraine soon after Russia’s February 2022 invasion, and has been examining attacks on infrastructure.

UN agencies in Ukraine to assess impact of dam's destruction (XinhuaNet)
Russia holds West responsible for dam disaster – UN envoy (06/07/23)

Permalink United States massively violates citizens’ right to private life

The 2021 statistical report issued by the Office of the US National Director of Intelligence, Avril Haines, on nominative internet surveys points to a widespread violation of the right of American citizens to privacy. | Each intelligence agency is entitled to request Internet companies for access to the personal information in their possession concerning either foreign or domestic Internet users suspected of crimes. Edward Snowden revealed that this data comprises emails, video chats and voice chats, photos, file transfers, logins, social media account details, and beyond.  Under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), such a probe can be greenlighted not only by magistrates and the US Attorney General, but also by an official, such as the director of national intelligence.  In 2021, the CIA carried out around 4,000 personal searches… while the FBI undertook 3,394,053. The data thus collected can ultimately be used for purposes which depart from the original motive. (Source: Office of Civil Liberties, Privacy, and Transparency, April 2022 – Annual Statistical Transparency Report Regarding the Intelligence Community’s Use of National Security Surveillance Authorities) (.pdf)

Health topic page on womens health Womens health our team of physicians Womens health breast cancer lumps heart disease Womens health information covers breast Cancer heart pregnancy womens cosmetic concerns Sexual health and mature women related conditions Facts on womens health female anatomy Womens general health and wellness The female reproductive system female hormones Diseases more common in women The mature woman post menopause Womens health dedicated to the best healthcare
buy viagra online